Monthly Archives: August 2015

Sports Drinks and Carbohydrate Intake During Sport

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As we saw in the last article dehydration can negatively affect health and performance. Therefore it is essential to drink enough both before, during and after sport.
Although we know that we should drink often the question is, what should we drink especially on those long run days. The following article attempts to answer some of your questions regarding sports drinks and their contents.

When is it ok just to drink water?
In general, water is sufficient during exercise duration of 1 hour or less.

When should I take a sports drink/carbohydrate?
For endurance running of over 1 hour it is generally recommended that we consume 30g-60g of carbohydrate during each hour of sport, along with water.

Why do we need carbohydrates when we run for over 1 hour?
This carbohydrate source during exercise helps to fuel the brain and muscles and can be achieved either by adding the carbohydrate to your drink, taking gels or by eating snacks.

What are carbohydrates?
Carbohydrates are an ideal source of energy for the body and are an essential fuel source during exercise. Much research has shown that consuming carbohydrates during running will enhance performance and increase your endurance capability.

There are two types of carbohydrate: complex or low GI and simple or high GI. Complex carbohydrates provide a slower and more sustained release of energy than simple carbohydrates. All carbohydrates form glucose when digested. Glucose is transported around the body via blood and taken into cells to be converted into energy. The pancreas gland in your abdomen secretes the hormone insulin, which controls the uptake of glucose by your cells. If you have any excess glucose, this is converted into glycogen – which is stored in the muscles, liver or in fat around the body.

When your body needs more energy, a second hormone called glucagon is secreted by the pancreas. This converts the glycogen back into glucose, which is then released into your bloodstream for your cells to use. This means the body’s glucose (sugar) metabolism is a cycle of glucose, insulin and glucagon reactions.

  • The slower the release of glucose and hormones, the more stable and sustainable the energy levels of the body.
  • The more refined the carbohydrate, the faster the glucose is released into your blood.
  • However during exercise when we burn fuel we need to maintain a constant flow of glucose otherwise we will burn out, in other words “hit the wall”. Although stored fat in our bodies is a second source of fuel during running it cannot be converted to energy unless there is carbohydrate (sugars) present.

Found this great table on the internet!!

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When should I consume complex or simple carbohydrates?
During and immediately after runs we need a faster supply of energy to our working muscles and brain, therefore it is recommended that in these times we consume simple carbohydrates.
In all other times we should try and reduce intake of simple sugars and consume only slow releasing low GI wholegrain carbohydrates which will sustain your over all energy levels better.

How much carbohydrate should I take per hour of running?
Research has indicated that Ingested single source carbohydrate is oxidized at 60-70 g.h¯¹. This effectively means that the body cannot digest more that 70g of carbohydrate per hour of exercise and consuming more than this is likely to be associated with gastrointestinal symptoms due to dehydration and slowed gastric emptying.

What happens in my stomach during running?
During exercise the blood flow to the stomach is reduced making it difficult to digest solids and many athletes suffer from cramping and stomach discomfort if they eat meals prior to or snacks during exercise. Sports drinks are designed to quickly pass through the stomach and are rapidly absorbed from the small intestine. They contain just the right amount of carbohydrate that you need along with fluids to prevent dehydration.

What are Sports Drinks?
There are 2 Types of sports drinks available on the market:
Fluid Replacement Drinks – Absorbed faster and contain less electrolytes and sugars.
Energy Drinks – Provide more carbohydrate for energy.

  • Hypotonic – 4g CHO /100ml are more effective when rapid rehydration is required and are absorbed faster than water.
  • Isotonic – 4-8g CHO/100ml, same osmolality as body fluids, provide ideal rehydration and refuelling; absorbed as fast as plain water.
  • Hypertonic – 8g CHO/100ml slower absorption providing more fuel and can dehydrate, most energy drinks are in this category and are not suitable for sport.

In general the isotonic drink is the easiest absorbed and optimally should contain between 6-8% carbohydrate.

What else is in a Sports Drink?
Most sports drinks will also contain electrolytes such as sodium and potassium. These too have their benefits during exercise in that sodium will increase the thirst sensation, aid fluid retention and increase absorption. Potassium assists muscle contractions during exercise. Some drinks contain caffeine and most of them contain artificial preservations, colours and flavours.

Can I make my own Sports Drinks?
Yes of course!!!!!!!!!!
For those of you that prefer to consume healthier and natural products then you can DIY your own sports drink. Coconut water for example is high in antioxidants and electrolytes, why not add organic fruit squash and a pinch of salt to the coconut water for your own homemade drink or try out these two below. I have attached a couple of different drinks recipes that you may like to try…

Homemade Hypotonic Drink

  • 250ml Fruit Juice
  • 750ml Filtered Water
  • ¼ tsp Salt (optional)
  • (24g cho per litre)

Homemade Isotonic Drink

  • 500ml Fruit Juice
  • 500ml Fruit Juice
  • ¼ tsp Salt (optional)
  • (48g cho per litre)

Final Note
It is really important to remember that we are all individuals and what works for one person may not for another. Never ever try something on race day that you have not recently tried during training runs. Also to note fructose or fruit sugar car irritate the tummy in high amounts and cause diarrhoea. Research indicates that mixing your carbohydrate sources is the best way to take it during exercise, so glucose and fructose together for example. If you have no problem eating solids during running remember to make sure they are high GI and are low in protein and fat. Remember to also try and avoid high fibre foods in this time as otherwise you might end up with a toilet issue! If you take gels you need to drink plenty of water at the same time and avoid taking them with sports drinks as the carbohydrate concentrations will then be too high! High amounts of carbohydrates that are present in concentrated form as is in gels can cause tummy upset, dehydration and cramping when taken without water!!!

Personally I have tried gels and sports drinks recently and found the cyto powder to be pleasant enough and also the homemade isotonic drink is good but I found it to be less effective..is this the placebo effect I wonder?? The gels I find really sticky, sickly and not very palatable and even though I drank a lot of water when taking them I noticed I get stitches about 10-15 minutes after which I found hard to shake off! On the plus side to taking the gels, the days I took them i noticed my recovery following the long run was much quicker than when I just took the sports drinks alone.

Below I have included some tables that will give you the macronutrient values of some common foods. This should help you add up the carbohydrate content of your snacks. Try and plan each hour of long running and start taking your carbohydrate early into the run for example:

  • 1st hour: 500ml sports drink
  • 2nd hour: Sports Gel with 600ml water
  • 3rd hour: Dried Raisins with 500ml water
  • 4th hour: Banana, 5-6 natural jellies and 500ml water

Or alternatively do the same thing every hour if that works for you. The biggest problem practically is carrying everything, so for your training runs maybe plan your route in advance and leave drinks along the way, carry a small rucksack or belt to hold the food/gels.
If you have experience with a great drink or you have a magic potion/recipe, then please share with us! It would be really interesting if we could make a product hit list which covers taste, price and results…Alternatively if you have any questions about sports nutrition or hydration then please post on the blog and I’ll do my best to post an answer
Happy running everyone!!

P.S: Please note due to their high sugar content sports drinks are only suitable for consumption around exercise and are not recommended to be taken by children especially outside of sport.

Sports Snack Foods – Macronutrient Values

Fruit

Food Type Quantity Carbohydrate g Protein g Fat g
Banana 1 (100g) 23 1.3 0.3
Apple 1 (100g) 11.4 0.5 0.1
Pear 1 (100g) 10.4 0.3 0.1
Strawberries 100g 6 0.8 0.1
Blueberries 30g 2.1 0.2 0.1
Water Melon 100g 7.1 0.5 0.3
Kiwi 1 6.4 0.7 0.3
Orange 1 (160g) 13.6 1.8 0.2
Clementine 1 (60g) 5.2 0.5 0.1
Avocado 1 (160g) 2.7 2.7 27
Mango 1 (140g) 19.7 1 0.3
Dried Raisins 50g 35 1.1 0.2
Dried Apricots 70g 30 3.4 0.5

Snacks

Food Type Quantity Carbohydrate g Protein g Fat g
Popcorn Homemade 30g (Popped) 23 3.9 1.4
Popcorn Manhatten 1 30g Bag 21 3 4.4
Corn Cakes ÐMultigrain Kelkin 1 cake 10.6 1.8 0.9
Rice Cakes with Yogurt- Kelkin 1 Cake 11.6 1.1 4.1
Bounce Balls-Almond proteinblast 1 Ball 49g 19.4 15 8
Bounce Balls ÐFudgie walnut 1 Ball 42g 20 5 9
Bounce Balls Ð Cashew Pecan 1 Ball 42g 22 4 9
Nature Valley Honey and Oats 1 Bar 32 4 6
Nakd Cocoa orange 1 Bar 16.8 3.9 7
Nakd Cocoa Mint 1 Bar 18.3 3.2 5.4
Nakd Oaty bar banana bread 1 Bar 38 3.2 4.7
Nakd Oaty bar berry Cheeky bar 1 Bar 40 5.3 6.2
Nakd Oary bar Apple Pie 1 Bar 41 75.1 6

Vegetables

Food Type Quantity Carbohydrate g Protein g Fat g
Carrots Sticks 80g 4.8 0.6 0.5
Celery 1 stick 0.5 0.3 0.2
Peppers ? in sticks 6.8 1 0.3
Tomato 1 2.6 0.6 0.3
Cherry Tomato 5 3 0.8 0.4

Breads

Food Type Quantity Carbohydrate g Protein g Fat g
Wholemeal bagel 1 (82g) 43 9.8 1.8
Wholemeal Pita 1 (67g) 39 6.2 0.8
Brown bread 1 slice (80g) 26 4.7 0.8
Soft Bread rolls 1 roll (56g) 28 5.1 1.4

Toppings for Bread

Food Type Quantity Carbohydrate g Protein g Fat g
Honey 1 tsp 7.6 0 0
Jam 1 tsp 2.4 0.1 0
Butter 1 tsp 0 0 4.1
Nutella 20g 12.1 1.2 6.6
Almond Butter 1 tbsp 1.2 3.8 10
Peanut Butter 1 tbsp 1.4 4.5 9.6
Ham 1 slice 0.1 4.2 1
Cheddar 1 slice 22g 0 5.5 7.4

Recipes
Click below for some recipes for home made sports drinks

Sports Drink Recipe
SportsZest Drink Recipe

Weekly News – 28th August

Wake up and Smell the Roses Run

Do you fancy doing 28km tomorrow (29th August) with shorter options also available on route. We are meeting at the south beach car park tomorrow morning at 9.00am. See you there

Next Monday & Wednesday Training Sessions:

Next week’s sessions are as follows:

Endurance/XC Group
Monday 31st August – Road (no watches allowed)
1 x 2 miles at 10km race pace, 3 minute recovery, 1 x 2 miles at 10km race pace 3 minute recovery
4 x 100m hills
Meet at track, leave there at 7.15pm – jog to Superquinn to warm up – session will be in Charlesland

Wednesday 2nd September – Trail – Kindlestown Hill Session
First Group – 4 x 400m, 4 x 200m, 4 x 300m, 4 x 100m all with a jog back recovery
Second Group – 3 x 400m, 3 x 200m, 3 x 300m, 3 x 100m all with a jog back recovery

Marathon & BQ Group – only 58 Days to go!!
Monday 31st August – Trail – Kindlestown Hill Session
HILL TRAINING
6 /9 by 300M hill
Jog recovery

Wednesday 2nd September – TBC

Results

Frank Duffy 10Mile Phoenix Park 22nd August
Last week was the 3rd event of the SSE Dublin race series – Frank Duffy 10mile. Well done to everyone who took part, loving your pretty purple t-shirts

Warrior Run Sligo 15km 22nd August
Claire took part in the Warrior run in Sligo last weekend. She completed the extremely though hilly course and set a new PB for Claire by 5 minutes 🙂 Amazing Claire well done 🙂

Upcoming Events

Leg it For Lakers 10km Saturday 5th September 2015
This year we have a different route! It is a beautiful flat 10km route around The Roundwood Reservoir, Roundwood, Co.Wicklow. – (this is the same route we did the other night in Roundwood)

Date: Saturday 5th September 2015
Time: 10.30am. Registration on day from 9am-10am at Roundwood Parish Hall.
Cost: €20 including a technical t-shirt or €25 on the day with no guarantee of a t-shirt. There is a FREE BBQ and refreshments post-race!

Dehydration and Fluids in Running

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Dehydration results from inadequate intake of fluids. It is a cumulative effect, in other words the symptoms are mild in the beginning and can become more serious over a short period of time. Avoiding dehydration is therefore imperative as this will lead to a gradual reduction in physical and mental performance.

So what happens in our bodies if we don’t drink enough?
DehydrationGraph

  • Body temperature increases during exercise.
  • Increased breakdown of glycogen in working muscle – this means we use more energy and get tired more easily.
  • Reduced rates of gastric emptying of fluids during exercise.
  • Reduced Concentration.
  • Muscle Cramps, Headaches, Nausea, Light Headiness, Dizziness.
  • Increased strain on our heart.
  • Reduced rates of fluid absorption from the intestines making it harder to reverse the fluid deficit. You may experience bloating and nausea if you delay fluid replacement.
  • Perceived intensity of exercise is increased.
  • Remember the thirst sensation is not automatic and when you start to feel thirsty you are possibly already dehydrated!

    How do I become dehydrated?
    Drinking insufficient fluids outside exercise is a common cause of dehydration and the average individual drinks a lot less than the following recommended levels.

    RDA Fluids (EFSA 2010) (outside sport)
    20% comes from food -20%
    Females >14yr 2lt 1.6lt
    Males >14yr 2.5lt 2lt

    Starting your exercise dehydrated is not a good idea and will lead to problems during your running.

    How do I know if I’m dehydrated?
    Well it’s as simple as this…

    Blogpic

    ….take the time to study your pee as this is the best indicator of hydration levels in the body…use the following pee chart to determine your hydration levels.

    UrineGraph

    So how do I become dehydrated during exercise?
    Simply put we sweat. Sweat glands in your skin make sweat, also known as perspiration, and is made almost completely of water, with tiny amounts of other chemicals like ammonia, urea and electrolytes.

    Sweating is the bodies response to maintaining a safe body temperature(36-38°C). It is effectively the removal of heat from the body. Most elite athletes are interestinely able to maintain higher core temperatures during exercise however for the rest of us it is extremely dangerous if our cooling systems are not working properly!

    The amount of sweat that you produce is individual and depends on: Exercise duration and intensity, fitness level, environment- temperature and humidity, body size.

    What else is lost in sweat?
    Electrolytes are also lost when we sweat, these are electrically-charged particles, and maintain electrical charges across cell membranes and carry electrical impulses (nerve impulses, muscle contractions, etc.) across themselves and to other cells.

    Your kidneys keep the electrolyte concentrations in your blood constant despite changes in your body.

    For example, when you exercise heavily, you sweat a lot and lose electrolytes in your sweat. These electrolytes must be replaced to keep the electrolyte concentrations of your body fluids constant, to maintain the proper balance of water on either side of the cell membranes and maintain electrical charges and impulses.

    Electrolytes

    Replacement of electrolytes lost in sweat can normally wait until the recovery period (Jenkendrup & Gleeson, 2010) and can be added to your recovery snack/drink, however adding a pince of salt to your sports drink will encourage you to drink more!

    How can I measure my sweat losses?
    An effective and simple way to look at fluid loss is to monitor body weight changes before and after exercise.

    Start with the measure of body mass prior to exercise. Ideally this should be done nude, but usually it is appropriate to do the measure in minimal clothing. Any volume of drinks taken during exercise will also need to be measured. You can easily do this by weighing water bottles at the start and end of exercise. During exercise, if at any time you need the toilet, their weight must be taken before and after. After exercise, body weight should be taken in the same clothing as before exercise, and any excess sweat on the skin should be towelled off

    Equation
    sweat loss = (body weight before – body weight after) + amount of fluid intake – toilet loss.

    So how much should I drink during exercise?
    The chart below is only general recommendations set out by ACSM (american Collage of Sports Medicine). To be more accurate on your needs measure your sweat losses!!

    WaterTable

    Is it possible to drink too much?
    Yes absolutely!! Hyponatremia is a condition that occurs when the level of sodium in your blood is abnormally low.
    Drinking too much water during endurance sports — causes the sodium in your body to become diluted. When this happens, your body’s water levels rise, and your cells begin to swell. This swelling can cause many health problems, from mild to severe.

    Symptoms: Headache, confusion, fatigue, muscle weakness, spasms, cramps, loss of consciousness, seizures, coma.
    When it occurs in triathletes, it usually happens during long or ultra-distance races in the heat but may occur anytime.

    It is estimated that approximately 30% of the finishers of the Hawaii Ironman are both hyponatremic and dehydrated. The longer the race, the greater the risk of hyponatremia .

    Confused about salt/Sodium?
    Salt is sodium plus chloride. Both are minerals. Salt is made up of 40% sodium and 60% chloride. The RDA for salt in Ireland for adults is 4g of salt or 1.6g of sodium the equivelant to ¾ of a teaspoon. Remember if sweating is excessive sodium needs to be replaced above the RDA. Adding a little salt will increase the desire to drink, promotes both carbohydrate and water uptake by the intestines and decreases urine output.

    Final Note
    As a novice middle distance and aspiring long distance runner I understand the difficulties of comsuming large amounts of water during road runs and trying to achieve the recommended intakes is very difficult.
    Not to mention the uncomfortableness of running with a belly full of fluids sloshing around, there are also many practical issues with drinkinig during exercise namely; carrying the bottles, toilet breaks and cramping. If we consider that we should drink 1lt over 2 hours even the weight of this is exhausting! Therefore as I am learning every day it is very important to plan ahead for the long runs, start the run well hydrated, plan your route and leave bottles on the way, take some cash with you to buy drinks and figure out the toilet situation for your route!! Happy running!

    Introduction

    Hello all fellow Kilcoole members…..

    To accompany the new marathon and endurance training plans we thought it might be good to start a club blog on hydration and nutrition for runners. This blog will cover all aspects of nutrition and hydration over time and will include practical tips, recipes and supplement information. We hope it will grow organically and that members will get involved in any discussions. I am a relative novice to running and although I can supply the scientific knowledge and recommendations from leading sports bodies I don’t hold the endurance running experience as many in the club….therefore it would be great if the more experienced runners out there give feedback and suggestions including product preferences and ideas. What worked/didn’t work for you?

    The first article will cover hydration and dehydration in running and the following piece will have a more in-depth look at sports drinks. If you have experience with a great drink or you have a magic potion/recipe then please share with us! It would be really interesting if we could make a product hit list which covers taste, price and results…

    Alternatively if you have any questions about sports nutrition or hydration then please post on the blog and I’ll do my best to post an answer!

    Happy blogging

    Lisa

    Weekly News – 21st August

    Wake up and Smell the Roses Run

    So the Wake up and Smell the roses run is changing to a Saturday for the moment which I kinda think is better cause you have Sunday to rest and can go out on Saturday night for few drinkies if you like 🙂 LOL!!

    So does anyone fancy doing 26km tomorrow with shorter options also available. We are meeting at the south beach car park tomorrow morning at 9.30am. See you there J

    Next Monday & Wednesday Training Sessions:

    Next week’s sessions are as follows:

    Marathon Group – 65 days to go!!
    Monday 24th August – Track
    (This is a change from the published programme on the website)
    Pyramid Session – 200m, 400m, 600m, 800m, 1000m, 1000m, 800m, 600m, 400m, 200m all with 90 seconds recovery between each

    Wednesday 26th August Track
    Strength & Conditioning Circuits at the track

    Non Marathon Group
    Monday 24th August – Track
    1,000m 2 min recovery 2,000m 3 min recovery, 1,000m 2 min recovery repeat till 8.10pm or 2 sets

    Wednesday 26th August
    Roundwood Trail Run
    Group A – 2 laps of the two lakes = 20km in total
    Group B – 1 lap of the two lakes = 10km in total

    Results

    King of Greystones Triathlon Sunday 16th August
    Sprint Tri (750m swim, 20km cycle and 5km Run)
    Well done to Conor Verbruggen who came 2nd in the event, he completed it in 01:04:04 – Awesome stuff Conor well done!

    Try a Tri (250m Swim, 20km cycle and 5km Run)
    Well done to Mark Byrne who completed his first ever triathlon!! He completed the course in a time of 01:11:46 and he also came 3rd – great Job Mark!

    Upcoming Events

    Leg it For Lakers 10km Saturday 5th September 2015
    This year we have a different route! It is a beautiful flat 10km route around The Roundwood Reservoir, Roundwood, Co.Wicklow. – (this is the same route we did the other night in Roundwood)

    Date: Saturday 5th September 2015
    Time: 10.30am. Registration on day from 9am-10am at Roundwood Parish Hall.
    Cost: €20 including a technical t-shirt or €25 on the day with no guarantee of a t-shirt. There is a FREE BBQ and refreshments post-race!

    Weekly News – 14th August

    Wake up and Smell the Roses Run
    For anyone who would like to do a long slow run this Sunday 16th August. We are meeting at the track at 10.30am. The distance is 22km at a very easy pace

    Next Monday & Wednesday Training Sessions

    Next week’s sessions are as follows:

    Marathon Group
    Monday 17th August – Track
    INTERVAL SESSION
    5mins at 80%
    1min jog rec
    Repeat 6 to 8 times

    Wednesday 19th August – Road (Brittas Bay weather permitting)
    8 miles easy

    Endurance/XC Group
    Monday 17th August – Track
    4 x 1000m tempo pace with 2 minute recovery between each 20 minutes Strength and Conditioning & 20 minutes core work

    Wednesday 19th August – Glen of the Downs Hill Session (Trail) 800m uphill, turn around and jog 200m down then run 600m down repeat until 8.15pm

    Upcoming Events

    Leg it For Lakers 10km Saturday 5th September 2015
    This year we have a different route! It is a beautiful flat 10km route around The Roundwood Reservoir, Roundwood, Co.Wicklow. – (this is the same route we did the other night in Roundwood)

    Date: Saturday 5th September 2015
    Time: 10.30am. Registration on day from 9am-10am at Roundwood Parish Hall.
    Cost: €20 including a technical t-shirt or €25 on the day with no guarantee of a t-shirt. There is a FREE BBQ and refreshments post-race!

    Weekly News – 7th August

    Next Monday & Wednesday Training Sessions

    Dublin City Marathon (DCM) & Wicklow Cross Country (WCC)
    The club is now gearing up for the DCM and WCC with 2 separate programmes in place. Can everyone PLEASE make a big effort to be at the track this coming Monday (August 10th) so that we can put groups and a plan into place.

    Next week kicks off our Endurance/Cross Country Training Programme. Week 1 is as follows:

    Monday 10th August – Track
    2 x 800m 2 min recovery
    2 x 400m 90 seconds recovery
    5 minute jog
    10 minute tempo run*
    2 minute recovery
    4 x 200m 1 minute recovery between each

    *A tempo run is a faster-paced workout also known as a lactate-threshold, LT, or threshold run. Tempo pace is often described as “comfortably hard.” Tempo running improves a crucial physiological variable for running success: our metabolic fitness. Talk Test: A question like “Pace okay?” should be possible, but conversation won’t be.

    Wednesday 12th August – Road
    5 minute jog warm up
    10 x 4 minute tempo with 2 minute recovery jog between each

    Results

    Aplauda Killiney Aquathon Saturday 25th July
    I received this info last week after I had sent the newsletter. Lisa won the women’s event; she had the fastest swim of ANY contestant over the 1km distance and held on for the win with the 2nd fastest women’s run split – well done Lisa, great job!

    Conor lso took part in this event to take 2nd place in the men’s race. He had the fastest 5km run but had a crappy swim (his words not mineJ) He missed out on 1st place by a second. Well done Conor still amazing!!

    Upcoming Events

    Leg it For Lakers 10km Saturday 5th September 2015
    This year we have a different route! It is a beautiful flat 10km route around The Roundwood Reservoir, Roundwood, Co.Wicklow. – (this is the same route we did the other night in Roundwood)

    Date: Saturday 5th September 2015
    Time: 10.30am. Registration on day from 9am-10am at Roundwood Parish Hall.
    Cost: €20 including a technical t-shirt or €25 on the day with no guarantee of a t-shirt. There is a FREE BBQ and refreshments post-race!

    To register go to: www.athleticstiming.com or www.active.com
    For more information on Lakers please visit www.lakers.ie

    Dublin City SSE Airtricity Marathon 26th October – Only 79 days to go
    So I’m sure everyone signed up for the Dublin Marathon is now in full swing getting to grips with their training! Hope you found the July plan usefulJ. Please see link below for the August schedule.

    http://kilcooleac.com/marathon-training-plan/